Fluorine is the most electronegative element in the periodic table, and the fluorine atom has a small atomic radius, so fluorine-containing organic compounds have many wonderful properties. For example, the introduction of fluorine atoms or fluorine-containing groups into drug molecules can improve the permeability to cell membranes, metabolic stability and bioavailability; in addition, the introduction of fluorine atoms will improve the lipid solubility of the compound and promote its absorption in the body. The speed of delivery changes the physiological effect. In the field of medicinal chemistry, the introduction of fluorine atoms into organic molecules is an important direction for the development of new anticancer drugs, antitumor drugs, antiviral agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, and central nervous system drugs.
Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) are widely used in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and renewable energy storage systems due to their high energy density and long cycle life. These batteries are composed of several key materials such as cathode materials, anode materials, electrolyte, separator and current collector, which enable them to operate. Other minor components in Li-ion batteries include binders, additives, and fillers, which improve electrode stability, electrolyte performance, and battery safety. Ongoing research and development focus on improving the energy density, safety, and cost-effectiveness of Li-ion batteries through advancements in materials, including the exploration of new cathode and anode materials, solid-state electrolytes, high-voltage electrolyte additives, and advanced manufacturing techniques.