Cyclopentane is a cycloalkane, an organic compound with a molecular formula of C5H10, a colorless and transparent liquid, insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, etc. It is mainly used as a solvent and chromatographic reference materials.
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Cyclopentane (also called C pentane) is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane. It occurs as a colorless liquid with a petrol-like odor.
Dioxolane is a heterocyclic acetal with the formula (CH2)2O2CH2. It is related to tetrahydrofuran by exchanging an oxygen for the CH2 group. The isomer 1,2-dioxolane (in which the two oxygen centers are adjacent) is a peroxide. 1,3-Dioxolane is used as solvent and comonomer in polyacetal. The dioxolane-type and their hydrogenolysis can provide very valuable partially protected building blocks either for oligosaccharide syntheses or sugar transformations.
Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or polyhydroxy ketones (ketoses) composed of C, H and O, or form polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones upon hydrolysis. Carbohydrates come in the form of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. The simplest sugars, monosaccharides and disaccharides, consist of one or two monosaccharide units. Oligosaccharides are generally classified as carbohydrates containing 3-10 monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides contain more than 10 monosaccharide units and can be quite large. Glucose is an aldose, the most important monosaccharide in the body, used by cells as fuel. Other aldohexoses are galactose and mannose, which form part of complex molecules. Fructose is a ketohexose sugar, while ribose is the most important aldose pentose sugar and a component of RNA.