Cyclopropane is the smallest cyclic compound with unique structural features and physicochemical properties, which is widely used in the design of small molecule drugs. In drug design, it is often used to increase activity, fix conformation and improve PK and water solubility. The introduction of cyclopropyl groups into drugs can change various properties of molecules, such as improving metabolic stability; increasing biological activity; enhancing drug efficacy; limiting polypeptide conformation and slowing down its hydrolysis; reducing plasma clearance; improving drug dissociation and many more. Cyclopropane rings are widely found in marketed drugs, including cardiovascular drugs, central nervous system (CNS) drugs, anticancer drugs, autoimmune and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Cyclanes are secondary metabolites that can be found in plants, and are also biochemicals that can be used in medicine. Cyclanes are found in pine trees, and are used in the making of plastics. Cyclenes are found in cinnamon, and have antifungal properties.
Benzene is an important organic compound with the chemical formula C6H6, and its molecule consists of a ring of 6 carbon atoms, each with 1 hydrogen atom. Benzene is a sweet, flammable, colorless and transparent liquid with carcinogenic toxicity at room temperature, and has a strong aromatic odor. It is insoluble in water, easily soluble in organic solvents, and can also be used as an organic solvent itself. The ring system of benzene is called benzene ring, and the structure after removing one hydrogen atom from the benzene ring is called phenyl. Benzene is one of the most important basic organic chemical raw materials. Many important chemical intermediates can be derived from benzene through substitution reaction, addition reaction and benzene ring cleavage reaction.