Benzene is an important organic compound with the chemical formula C6H6, and its molecule consists of a ring of 6 carbon atoms, each with 1 hydrogen atom. Benzene is a sweet, flammable, colorless and transparent liquid with carcinogenic toxicity at room temperature, and has a strong aromatic odor. It is insoluble in water, easily soluble in organic solvents, and can also be used as an organic solvent itself. The ring system of benzene is called benzene ring, and the structure after removing one hydrogen atom from the benzene ring is called phenyl. Benzene is one of the most important basic organic chemical raw materials. Many important chemical intermediates can be derived from benzene through substitution reaction, addition reaction and benzene ring cleavage reaction.
Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) are widely used in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and renewable energy storage systems due to their high energy density and long cycle life. These batteries are composed of several key materials such as cathode materials, anode materials, electrolyte, separator and current collector, which enable them to operate. Other minor components in Li-ion batteries include binders, additives, and fillers, which improve electrode stability, electrolyte performance, and battery safety. Ongoing research and development focus on improving the energy density, safety, and cost-effectiveness of Li-ion batteries through advancements in materials, including the exploration of new cathode and anode materials, solid-state electrolytes, high-voltage electrolyte additives, and advanced manufacturing techniques.